Popular Consultation of 2018: Territorial, insular and maritime dispute between Guatemala and Belize

The Popular Consultation of 2018 was carried out with the aim of finding a solution for the territorial disputes between Guatemala and Belize. The popular consultation foresees that citizens support or oppose the intervention of international judges in the demarcation of the borders of both countries. This consultation arose from the failed attempt to resolve the dispute through the direct vote of citizens in 2013. It is carried out within the framework of Article 173 of the Constitution. Members of non-profit associations, NGOs, or legally constituted groups aimed at carrying out election observation, in addition to voting, may also participate as observers during the consultation.

Institutional design


Formalization: is the innovation embedded in the constitution or legislation, in an administrative act, or not formalized at all?

Frequency: how often does the innovation take place: only once, sporadically, or is it permanent or regular?

Mode of Selection of Participants: is the innovation open to all participants, access is restricted to some kind of condition, or both methods apply?

Type of participants: those who participate are individual citizens, civil society organizations, private stakeholders or a combination of those?

Decisiveness: does the innovation takes binding, non-binding or no decision at all?

Co-governance: is there involvement of the government in the process or not?

embedded in the constitution/legislation 
Mode of selection of participants
Type of participants
democratic innovation yields a binding decision  


  • Deliberation
  • Direct Voting
  • E-Participation
  • Citizen Representation


  • Accountability
  • Responsiveness
  • Rule of Law
  • Political Inclusion
  • Social Equality

Policy cycle

Agenda setting
Formulation and decision-making
Policy Evaluation


How to quote

Do you want to use the data from this website? Here’s how to cite:

Pogrebinschi, Thamy. (2017). LATINNO Dataset. Berlin: WZB.

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