Water Management Boards
The Water Management Board is a mechanism for citizen participation and self-management of public services at the town, village and municipal level. The Board is essentially responsible for the operation, maintenance and administration of drinking water supply and sanitation systems in rural communities and in peri-urban areas under development. The Boards are organized as an assembly of users, board of directors and support committees. By 2016 the existence of 5000 Boards were known about. It was also pointed out that the Boards required more strategic planning and a long-term working vision.
Formalization: is the innovation embedded in the constitution or legislation, in an administrative act, or not formalized at all?
Frequency: how often does the innovation take place: only once, sporadically, or is it permanent or regular?
Mode of Selection of Participants: is the innovation open to all participants, access is restricted to some kind of condition, or both methods apply?
Type of participants: those who participate are individual citizens, civil society organizations, private stakeholders or a combination of those?
Decisiveness: does the innovation takes binding, non-binding or no decision at all?
Co-governance: is there involvement of the government in the process or not?
- embedded in the constitution/legislation
- Mode of selection of participants
- Type of participants
- democratic innovation yields a binding decision