Water Management Boards
The Water Management Board is a mechanism for citizen participation and self-management of public services at the town, village and municipal level. The board is mainly responsible for the operation, maintenance and administration of the drinking water supply and the sanitation systems in rural communities and peri-urban areas. The boards are formed by users, directors and support committees. By 2016, there were 5000 boards. It has been signaled that the boards require more strategic planning and long-term objectives.
Formalization: is the innovation embedded in the constitution or legislation, in an administrative act, or not formalized at all?
Frequency: how often does the innovation take place: only once, sporadically, or is it permanent or regular?
Mode of Selection of Participants: is the innovation open to all participants, access is restricted to some kind of condition, or both methods apply?
Type of participants: those who participate are individual citizens, civil society organizations, private stakeholders or a combination of those?
Decisiveness: does the innovation takes binding, non-binding or no decision at all?
Co-governance: is there involvement of the government in the process or not?
- embedded in the constitution/legislation
- Mode of selection of participants
- Type of participants
- democratic innovation yields a binding decision