Advisory Councils on Watersheds

The Watershed Advisory Councils were created by the Second Immediate Action Plan for the Environmental Management of the Panama Canal Watershed. They are platforms for dialogue and agreement in which representatives of government entities, the private sector and civil society associations that intervene in the territory of the sub-basins participate. Its purpose is to reach agreements on matters related to the management of the sub-basins and to give recommendations. In addition to its role as an institution aimed at reaching intersectoral consensus, the councils collaborate in monitoring compliance with current environmental regulations. In 2020 there are more than six Advisory Councils in Panama. In the participation structure designed by the Immediate Action Plan, the Councils are an intermediate institution between the Local Committees and the Inter-institutional Commission of the Panama Canal Watershed, which acts as a communication channel.

Institutional design


Formalization: is the innovation embedded in the constitution or legislation, in an administrative act, or not formalized at all?

Frequency: how often does the innovation take place: only once, sporadically, or is it permanent or regular?

Mode of Selection of Participants: is the innovation open to all participants, access is restricted to some kind of condition, or both methods apply?

Type of participants: those who participate are individual citizens, civil society organizations, private stakeholders or a combination of those?

Decisiveness: does the innovation takes binding, non-binding or no decision at all?

Co-governance: is there involvement of the government in the process or not?

only backed by a governmental program or policy 
Mode of selection of participants
Type of participants
civil society private stakeholders  
democratic innovation yields a non-binding decision  


  • Deliberation
  • Direct Voting
  • E-Participation
  • Citizen Representation


  • Accountability
  • Responsiveness
  • Rule of Law
  • Political Inclusion
  • Social Equality

Policy cycle

Agenda setting
Formulation and decision-making
Policy Evaluation


How to quote

Do you want to use the data from this website? Here’s how to cite:

Pogrebinschi, Thamy. (2017). LATINNO Dataset. Berlin: WZB.

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