Slum Urbanization Program
The Slum Urbanization Program in Diadema was the main housing program for low-income families in the city between 1982 and 1996. The program urbanized 97 of the 192 slums, a process that included paving, water provision, sewage and drainage. In 1996, 76 slums were being urbanized and 19 had specific interventions. This initiative had a special form of enforcement and monitoring. The first part of the program - prior to the start of the interventions - consisted in the organization of neighborhood committees which were responsible for involving the population in the urbanization process. This involvement happened in two ways: with the committees running the urbanization process in task forces or overseeing the city hall´s actions and registering the areas and families who would receive the benefits.
Formalization: is the innovation embedded in the constitution or legislation, in an administrative act, or not formalized at all?
Frequency: how often does the innovation take place: only once, sporadically, or is it permanent or regular?
Mode of Selection of Participants: is the innovation open to all participants, access is restricted to some kind of condition, or both methods apply?
Type of participants: those who participate are individual citizens, civil society organizations, private stakeholders or a combination of those?
Decisiveness: does the innovation takes binding, non-binding or no decision at all?
Co-governance: is there involvement of the government in the process or not?
- embedded in the constitution/legislation
- Mode of selection of participants
- Type of participants
- civil society
- democratic innovation yields no decision