Local Management Boards
The Local Management Boards (Span. JAL) are administrative public corporations at the territorial level, which aim to act as a link between municipal authorities and citizens, which makes them an important source of political representation and promotion of citizen participation. In the municipalities the division occurs in communes and small towns, whereas in the special districts (that correspond to the main cities of the country), the divisions are denominated localities. In these, the Local Administrative Boards are elected by popular vote for periods of four years and must work in coordination with the administrative authorities of the respective territory for the fulfillment of their functions and attributions. In this way, the elections are held at the same time that municipalities, municipal councils, governorships and departmental assemblies are elected. These Boards play an important role within the administrative decentralization of the state, which allows them to be a political actor that co-ordinates the planning, organization and control of the provision of public services. The members of the JAL are called ediles (lit. councilors) and they hold the quality of civil servants without remuneration. The JAL originated in 1968 with a Legislative Act that reformed the Constitution of 1886 and was also included in the 1991 Constitution within the structure of the executive branch, granting them powers and functions to be exercised in their territorial jurisdiction as a method of bringing the State closer to the citizens. Later the Congress of the Republic gave them a normative development with laws in the years 1994, 2000 and 2012.
Formalization: is the innovation embedded in the constitution or legislation, in an administrative act, or not formalized at all?
Frequency: how often does the innovation take place: only once, sporadically, or is it permanent or regular?
Mode of Selection of Participants: is the innovation open to all participants, access is restricted to some kind of condition, or both methods apply?
Type of participants: those who participate are individual citizens, civil society organizations, private stakeholders or a combination of those?
Decisiveness: does the innovation takes binding, non-binding or no decision at all?
Co-governance: is there involvement of the government in the process or not?
- embedded in the constitution/legislation
- Mode of selection of participants
- Type of participants
- Democratic innovation yields a binding decision